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广州翻译公司:恐怖袭击心理阴影为何难愈?

作者: 来源: 日期:2016-09-12 8:31:49

The attacks that tattooed terror on our minds

恐怖袭击心理阴影为何难愈?

 

广州翻译公司:贡达尔-戈申:恐惧是一种心理状态,是对极端畏惧的主观体验。与恐怖主义共存就要直面心理上的威胁,而不是陷入焦虑之中。

 

September 11 2001 is a date tattooed on the neurons of every person who watched television on the day of those attacks. While that has not changed over the past 15 years, what has is the meaning of this mental tattoo.

2001911日被纹在了在恐怖袭击当天看了电视的每个人的神经元上。尽管这一点在过去15年里没有变化,但这种精神纹身的含义已经发生了改变。广州翻译公司。

 

What was then seen as a one-off event became the gateway to being part of an existing a worldwide problem. On September 11, Europe gazed in horror at what was going on across the ocean in the US. But the past two years will be remembered as the years that changed Europe’s position from that of bystander to being the main victim.

9/11恐怖袭击曾被视为一次性事件,但自那以来这一事件已经成为通往一个世界性问题的门户。欧洲曾在911日恐惧地凝视着大西洋对岸的美国发生的恐袭事件。但历史将会铭记的是,欧洲的角色在过去两年里从旁观者转变为了主要受害者。

 

I was 12 years old in 1994 when the first bus exploded in the centre of Tel Aviv, killing 22 people. My mother gave me this advice, packed with my lunchbox, as I set off for school the next day: “When you are in a public place, always make sure you know where the emergency exits are. During an event in an open space, be certain to have a clear path in case you need to escape.”

1994年的时候我12岁,当时在特拉维夫市中心发生了首起巴士爆炸事件,导致22人死亡。第二天我准备去上学的时候,我母亲在午餐盒上放了一个字条:“在公共场所的时候,始终要确保你知道紧急出口在哪里。参加室外活动的时候,确保有一条通路,在需要时可以逃生。”广州翻译公司。

 

I was not allowed to watch the news after the attack: “This is not a sight for children” but I did not have to. Kids can smell fear: it has a strong scent, like the wet fur of a dog. Every “bang!” from a car engine made everyone jump.

在恐怖袭击活动之后,大人们不让我看新闻:“这不是小孩们看的,”但我不用看。小孩们可以闻到恐惧:它具有强烈的气味,就像是打湿了的狗毛一样。汽车发动机的每一声巨响都会让所有人吓一跳。

 

In the shopping mall, in a restaurant, at a concert, suspicious looks were exchanged. It was as if, at any moment, the street you knew by heart might turn into a different planet, a burning jungle.

在购物中心、餐馆以及音乐会上,人们彼此猜疑地看着对方。你熟知的这条街道似乎随时可能变成一个不同的星球,一个燃烧的丛林。

 

And now it is Europe that is burning and the smell of fear haunts the streets after each atrocity, long after the last camera is switched off.

如今则是欧洲在燃烧,每一次恐怖袭击之后,街道上恐惧的气味在最后一台摄像机关闭很久之后还久久不散。广州翻译公司。

 

Everyone is talking about terror. Everyone is asking how Europe should cope with terror. From the European debt crisis in 2009 all the way back to the Black Death in the 14th century, terror is just the latest latest in a long line of threat to European society. But when we say “threat”, what do we mean?

每个人都在谈论恐惧。每个人都在问,欧洲应该如何应对恐惧。从2009年欧洲债务危机一直回溯至14世纪的黑死病,恐惧只是欧洲社会面临的一长串威胁中最新的一个。但是当我们说“威胁”的时候,我们指的是什么?

 

Terror is a psychological state, a subjective experience of intense fear. It has, of course, political and economic implications but these are driven by the psychological experience.

恐惧是一种心理状态,是对极端畏惧的一种主观体验。它当然具有政治和经济含义,但这是由心理上的体验推动的。

 

Terror aims at our psyche: it threatens the minds of the crowd far more than it endangers them physically. To live with terrorism is to fight for a clear, un-panicked mind. To live with terrorism is to face the psychological threat, rather than enmeshbecome enmeshed in anxiety.

恐惧针对的是我们的心理:它对民众心理上的威胁远远超过它对他们人身安全的威胁。与恐怖主义共存就是要争取维持清晰、冷静的头脑。与恐怖主义共存就是要直面心理上的威胁,而不是陷入焦虑之中。广州翻译公司。

 

Psychologists distinguish between external threat and internal threat. External threats are there in reality: a lion, a clash with your boss. These are objective problems, based on objective data. In France in 1346, you had a 50 per cent chance of losing your life to the Black Death. This was not a subjective or psychological threat. This was reality.

心理学家区分了外在威胁和内在威胁。外在威胁是现实存在的:一头狮子,与老板发生冲突。这些是基于客观数据的客观问题。在1346年的法国,你有50%的几率死于黑死病。这不是主观或心理上的威胁。这是现实。

 

An internal threat is different: here, we focus on the psychological experience of danger, regardless of the objective facts. The objective threat to Europeans from global terror is relatively minor. It is in the subjective threat where the terrorists really win.

内在威胁有所不同:这里我们专注于对危险的心理体验,无论客观事实如何。欧洲遭受全球恐怖活动的客观威胁相对较小。恐怖分子真正取胜的地方在于主观上的威胁。

 

I am not implying that terror is not a threat. Terrorism has taken the lives of more than 265 innocent people in Europe since the beginning of 2015. But the smell of fear in European cities has a psychological source rather than stemming from an objective threat to everyday life.

我并不是说恐怖主义不是威胁。自2015年初以来,恐怖主义夺去了逾265条无辜的生命。但欧洲城市中的恐惧气味来源于心理因素,而非日常生活中的客观威胁。广州翻译公司。

 

The terrorists’ victory is not through the actual conquering of European land (which is out of the question) or through the death tolls from their attacks but through the fear they manage to create.

恐怖分子的胜利不是通过对欧洲土地的实际征服(这完全不可能)或者袭击活动造成的死亡人数获得的,而是通过他们成功制造的畏惧获得。

 

The real tragedy of terror is what it makes us do to each other. We start fearing people just because of how they look: the colour of their skin, the way they dress. The inner racist, usually forced to stay silent, suddenly opens its ugly mouth.

恐惧的真正悲剧在于它改变了我们对彼此的态度。我们开始仅仅因为某些人的样子而畏惧他们:他们的肤色以及他们的穿着。内在的那个通常被迫保持沉默的种族主义者,忽然张开了丑陋的嘴。广州翻译公司。

 

But could it be that we can learn to live with terror just as we live with traffic pollution? It is there, it stinks, it may kill us and yet we go out, drive and walk along the streets. Living, working, loving. This is the real triumph over terror.

但有没有可能我们能够学会与恐惧共存,就像我们学会与交通污染共存一样?污染就在那里,发出刺鼻的气味,可能会要我们的命,但我们还是会出门,开车,行走在大街上。我们活着、工作着、爱着。这才是真正地战胜了恐惧。

 

The writer is a psychologist and novelist. Her most recent book is ‘Waking Lions’

本文作者是一名心理学家和小说家。她的新作是《觉醒的狮子》(Waking Lions)

 

广州翻译公司

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