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作者: 来源: 日期:2016-09-09 8:52:27

Fashion brands build museums as archives gain value





As “heritage” continues to obsess the industry, the fashion archive is becoming highly prized. Brands are pouring resources into building museums in which to house their collections, while canny young designers are buying back garments from clients, or bidding against collectors and museums to retrieve rare vintage pieces with which to build their own.



Many brands are now using their archives to produce exhibitions as a way of extending their brand message. The Fondation Pierre Bergé — Yves Saint Laurent will open two museums in autumn 2017, in Paris and Marrakesh, to celebrate the work of its founder, Yves Saint Laurent. The Gucci Museum, which opened in Florence in 2011, recently announced acquisitions from Tom Ford’s era at the house. The Missoni archive is on display at the Fashion and Textile Museum in London (until September 4).

很多品牌公司如今用自己的馆藏举办展览,作为扩大自己品牌影响力的手段。皮埃尔•贝尔热-伊夫•圣•罗兰基金会(Fondation Pierre Bergé-Yves Saint Laurent)建于巴黎与马拉喀什(Marrakesh)的两家博物馆将于2017年秋季正式开馆,用来纪念品牌创始人伊夫•圣罗兰的杰出成就。古驰博物馆(The Gucci Museum)2011年在佛罗伦萨开馆,它近日宣布收购汤姆•福特(Tom Ford)担任古驰创意总监时期所推的时装。米索尼(Missoni)各个时期推出的时装不久前也在伦敦时装与纺织品博物馆(Fashion and Textile Museum)展出。


There’s a dawning realisation that if you want to be a so-called heritage brand, you have to be able to tell the story through objects,” explains Sonnet Stanfill, fashion curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum. “An archive can be useful for design inspiration, for lending to an exhibition, or for if you think you’d want to do your own retrospective.”

“如今各大品牌开始意识到:若要成为底蕴深厚的品牌,就得通过自己各时期推出的时装讲述前世今生。”伦敦维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)时装策展人索妮特•斯坦菲尔(Sonnet Stanfill)这样解释道。“时装档案能有效启发设计灵感,也可友情参展,还能自办品牌回顾展。”广州时装翻译公司。


Shonagh Marshall, a freelance curator who archived Alexander McQueen’s collection in preparation for the Met’s Savage Beauty exhibition in 2015, and who has also worked on the archive collections of Christian Louboutin and the late stylist Isabella Blow, agrees. “The motivation often lies in the sense of building a brand, which is now entwined with cultural heritage. Keeping those objects means keeping a sense of narrative — without them you have no assets.”

自由策展人肖纳格•马歇尔(Shonagn Marshall)对此也深以为然。为了参加纽约大都会博物馆2015年举办的亚历山大•麦昆(Alexander McQueen)“野性之美”时装特展(Savage Beauty),他精心收藏了对方各个时期设计的时装;他还致力于克里斯蒂安•娄伯丁(Christian Louboutin)以及已故知名设计师伊莎贝拉•布罗(Isabella Blow)的资料档案收藏。“建立档案馆的动机通常在于打造品牌意识,如今它与文化遗产紧密关联。收藏这些物品意味着传承历史——品牌没有它们,就谈不上有什么内涵。”


Kerry Taylor, who runs her own auction house, is considered a world leader in vintage fashion, antique costume and textiles. She often finds herself selling back items to design houses prepared to pay huge sums for missing pieces.

经营时装拍卖行的凯丽•泰勒(Kerry Taylor)是当今世界在复古时装、仿古服装及纺织品方面的老大。她经常把一些藏品回售给各大品牌,对方愿出巨资购买自己漏藏的款式。广州时装翻译公司。


Some of the more established brands, such as Dior, Balenciaga and Chanel, really see the value in buying back their heritage,” she explains. “The Chanel archive in Paris is like a glamorous high-security prison. Everything has black lacquered sliding cabinets. If Karl Lagerfeld wants to look at something from the 1920s or 1930s, there it is, beautifully stored and catalogued. Not only does it reinforce the importance of the brand itself, [but also] when new designers come along they can plunder it for ideas — and stay within the house.”

“迪奥(Dior)、巴黎世家(Balenciaga)以及香奈儿(Chanel)这些时尚大牌现在真正认识到了回购老款时装的重要意义。”她这样解释道,“巴黎的香奈儿档案馆犹如一座光彩夺目、戒备森严的监狱,各种馆藏品都挂在滑动式黑漆柜中。老佛爷(Karl Lagerfeld)若想欣赏上世纪2030年代的香奈儿款式,来这里就可以了,它们分门别类存放于此,依然光鲜亮丽。此举不仅巩固了品牌自身的江湖地位,而且当年轻设计师参观时,能够长时间驻足其中,汲取设计灵感。”


Pierre Bergé, one-time romantic partner and longtime business partner of Saint Laurent, started building the Saint Laurent archive soon after the brand’s foundation. It was a prescient move.



Yves decided to keep a dress for the first time in 1964, only two years after we founded the couture house,” says Bergé. “I remember it very well, it was a brown lace dress that he loved very much.”



The Fondation Pierre Bergé-Yves Saint Laurent has since become a huge enterprise. “Besides the 5,000 garments and 15,000 accessories, our archive also contains all the original drawings, as well as the atelier’s specification sheets, the collection boards and a large number of press articles, photos and videos of collections,” he continues. “Each piece is stored on our premises under optimal conditions: air conditioning, humidity controls, anti-acid paper. About 10 people, mainly trained museum specialists, work on the preservation and the documentation of the collection.” Bergé is proud of his ability to share the YSL story with both the public and those who head up the design department — including newly appointed creative director Anthony Vaccarello. “Since we closed the couture house in 2002, the archives have always been made available to the designers from the ready-to-wear house. Hedi Slimane [who left this year, and borrowed heavily from the house’s original 1960s design aesthetic] came many times. He is a great connoisseur and admirer of Yves’ oeuvre. Anthony Vaccarello immediately asked to come and visit the archives.”

皮埃尔•贝尔热-伊夫•圣•罗兰基金会逐渐成为规模空前的博物馆。“除了收藏的5000件时装以及15000件配饰外,我们的档案馆还藏有最原始的草图以及工作室的规格表、采集板和大量时装类新闻稿、照片及视频。”他继续道,“每一件馆藏品都存放于最佳环境中:空调、湿度控制以及耐酸纸。大约10位(多为训练有素的博物馆专业人员)负责藏品的保存及归档。”能与普通民众及圣罗兰设计室诸负责人(其中包括新任创意总监安东尼•瓦卡莱洛(Anthony Vaccarello))共同分享圣罗兰品牌的辉煌历史,贝尔热对自己的成就颇感自豪。“自我们2002年退隐江湖后,档案馆一直向圣罗兰的设计师开放。前任创意总监艾迪•斯理曼(Hedi Slimane)来过很多回。他从圣罗兰上世纪60年代的设计理念借鉴颇多,他是圣罗兰时装的鉴赏大师及超级粉丝。安东尼•瓦卡莱洛一上任,就请求来档案馆参观。”广州时装翻译公司。


One would assume most designers appointed at a house have free rein of their archive. It isn’t always so. Demna Gvasalia, the new creative director of Balenciaga, spent several weeks in the archive after he joined this year; his pre-fall collection featured oversized shearling scarfs with the house branding that were an exact copy of a 1930s original. But his predecessor, Nicolas Ghesquière, had a very different experience when he joined the house in 1997.

大家可能会认为:大多数创意总监可随意“支配”所在品牌公司的馆藏档案,但事实并非如此。戴姆纳•瓦萨利亚(Demna Gvasalia)今年新晋巴黎世家新任创意总监后,曾花了数周时间泡在档案馆;他的早秋系列主推印有巴黎世家品牌标识的特大款羊绒围巾,它们与上世纪30年代的款式一模一样。但瓦萨利亚的前任尼古拉斯•盖斯基埃(Nicolas Ghesquière)1997年出任巴黎世家设计总监时,则境况大不相同。


For years Ghesquière was blocked from the archive, partly because the pieces didn’t actually belong to the corporate group that bought the Balenciaga name, and partly due to tensions with the keeper of the keys, Marie-Andrée Jouve. He was only granted access in 2002, when the house was acquired by the Gucci Group.

盖斯基埃好多年都无法进档案馆参观,部分原因是其馆藏品并不真正属于购买巴黎世家商标名的开云集团(Kering),部分原因是他与档案馆的钥匙掌管者玛丽亚-安德蕾•朱维(Marie-Andrée Jouve)关系紧张。他到了2002年才获许入馆,当时巴黎世家已被新东家古驰收购。广州时装翻译公司。


Other archives are simply the victim of disorder. “The Givenchy archive; now there’s a shame,” sighs Kerry Taylor. “Things by Hubert de Givenchy have never been properly catalogued. Their archivists come and go and it’s not a senior role.” Bergé and Saint Laurent were pioneers. “None of today’s most important couture houses have archives like ours,” he says. “They only realised the significance of having an archival department in the 1990s.”

有些档案馆则完全毁于管理失当。“纪梵希(Givenchy)档案馆如今成了业界耻辱。”凯丽•泰勒叹气道,“于贝尔•德•纪梵希(Hubert de Givenchy)的档案资料从来没有准确分门别类。他们的档案馆工作人员经常变动,完全是可有可无的角色。”贝尔热与圣罗兰则是建立档案馆的开天辟地者。“如今大多数知名时尚品牌的档案馆都比我们逊色。”他说,“它们在上世纪90年代才意识到设立专门档案部的重要性。”


Today, Gucci has a museum. Twenty years ago it had nothing. “I started the Gucci historical archives in 1997 from scratch, when the whole concept was very new and innovative,” explains curator Grazia Venneri. “Unfortunately, the Gucci family never kept samples of their production. I had to carry out a systematic research and acquisition campaign; reaching out to celebrities, private collectors and collaborating with auction houses and vintage boutiques. When I left Gucci in 2013 we had collected and catalogued more than 5,000 products and about 2,000 documents and vintage images.”

如今古驰也建有自己的时装博物馆。20年前的它在这方面可是白纸一张。“1997年,我们从无到有开始组建历史档案馆,当时整个理念非常新颖、颇具前瞻性。”古驰档案馆馆长葛拉齐拉•文内里(Grazia Venneri)解释道,“遗憾的是,古驰家族过去从不保存自己所推时装的样品,我只得进行系统调研与收购活动;求助于名人与个人藏家,以及与拍卖行及旧货店合作。2013年我离开古驰时,已经收集与归类了5000多件时装以及大约2000件文档和老照片。”广州时装翻译公司。


Alessandra Arezzi Boza helped build the archive of Pucci, another major Italian brand. “I found a huge warehouse full of boxes,” she says. “Having been a family-run brand until 2000, with the headquarters located in the family palace, the Pucci archive had a great advantage: everything had been kept since the early 1950s — photographs, sketches, textile prints, press and of course garments and accessories — more than 30,000 items. But it all needed to be organised and brought alive.”

亚历桑德拉•阿雷齐•博扎(Alessandra Arezzi Boza)协助建立了意大利另一知名品牌璞琪(Pucci)的档案馆。“我最初看到的是堆满各种箱子的大仓库。”她回忆道,“璞琪在2000年前一直是家族企业,总部就设在自家豪华别墅里,因此建立档案馆具有得天独厚的优势:自上世纪50年代初以来的一切东西都完整保留着——照片、素描图、纺织品印花、媒体文章,当然还有推出的所有服装及配饰——总数超过3万件。但所有东西需要分类归档以及‘激活’。”


Motivated by their experiences, Arezzi Boza and Venneri formed a consultancy that extends into strategy. As well as working with big Italian manufacturers keen to leverage their heritage, the duo plan to help emerging talent.




For young designers, the decision to keep an archive depends on pre-empting one’s future greatness. Which can seem a little grandiose. “It’s a question of how important you think you’re going to be, a strange thought when you’re a recent graduate,” says Shonagh Marshall. Then there’s the expense and space required to do it properly. “You need not just the space but the proper storage infrastructure — thin, flat drawers for things that can’t be hung, rails, archival tissue, manpower, cameras, computers,” says Stanfill. “If you’re in a rush, things pile up and disorder creeps in.”



Keeping things is a luxury few young designers can afford, even if the inclination to collect and reference their own past work is there. Cash flow concerns can mean items are sold off through sample sales. Or lost altogether. “In the early years, Alexander McQueen paid people in clothing,” says Marshall. “There’s one famous lost collection; after a show he left the clothes in a bin bag outside a King's Cross club because he didn’t have the money for the cloakroom.” The whole lot disappeared. “But as the brand got bigger, the archive got bigger, particularly after his death in 2010. Sarah Burton regularly draws on it.”

不间断保存好自己作品需大量人力、物力与财力,年轻设计师可求不可得,即便内心存有收藏以及借鉴自己昔日劳动成果的意向,大量经费需求有时意味着得通过特卖活动忍痛割爱部分藏品,抑或说永远失去它们。“亚历山大•麦奎最早是用自己设计的时装支付费用。”马歇尔说,“他失去自己的一款时装的事众所周知:一次时装发布会后,他把时装放在伦敦国王十字车站(King's Cross)附近某俱乐部外的塑料垃圾袋里,因为他没钱把它们存放于衣帽间。”这套时装就这样永远消失了。“随着亚历山大•麦奎品牌知名度越来越大,档案馆的藏品也愈加丰富(他2010年离世后尤为如此)。萨拉•伯顿(Sarah Burton)经常从中汲取灵感。”广州时装翻译公司。


London-based designer Gareth Pugh, whose work has been exhibited at the Met and the V&A, has made an effort to keep as much as possible without the help of a formal archivist. “The big expense is the storage — square footage in London does not come cheap,” he says.

伦敦设计师加雷斯•普欧(Gareth Pugh)的时装曾在大都会博物馆以及维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆展出,在没有正式档案专业人士帮助的情况下,他尽最大努力收藏自己的作品。“最大的费用是存放场地——伦敦每平方英尺的租费价格不菲。”他说。


Designer Erdem Moralioglu, of Erdem, has also made a concerted effort to keep “everything”. Both he and Pugh keep their work in external storage facilities, outside of their studios. Like Pugh also, Moralioglu has made do without an archivist, although is looking to employ one. Like Chanel, Gucci and other mega brands, he already seems aware of the importance of heritage: he used his 10-year brand anniversary in 2015 as a chance to spotlight past hits.

埃德姆创意总监埃德姆•莫拉里奥格鲁(Erdem Moralioglu)也竭尽全力收藏自己的一切作品。他与普欧把收藏的时装存放在自己工作室外的存储设施里。与普欧一样,莫拉里奥格鲁也是在毫无档案专业人员的帮助下努力为之,尽管他最近打算聘请一位。与香奈儿、古驰等大名牌一样,他似乎也意识到了传承的重要意义:2015年,他运用自己创牌10周年纪念活动之契机,集中展示了自己过去所推时装精品。广州时装翻译公司。


 In doing that project, I realised very quickly how many things were missing,” he explains. “There’s a stylist in New York who has a dress from my first collection that I don’t have. So I’m desperate to try to buy it off her — it’s funny to be buying back my own stuff.” To him, it’s worth the trouble. “We’re all a project of what we’ve done and what we’ve shown,” he says.



Indeed, if there’s ever an illustration that brand and archive are one and the same, it’s Helmut Lang. After deciding to leave fashion in 2005, and after his namesake brand was bought by the Prada Group, he put 6,000 items through an industrial shredder.

没错,若用例子来说明品牌与档案馆实际上完全是一回事的话,最合适的莫过于赫尔穆特•朗(Helmut Lang)2005年,朗决定退隐江湖、其同名品牌由普拉达(Prada)收购后,他竟用工业粉碎机把所收藏的6000件时装作品一毁了之。广州时装翻译公司。


As brands have become more interested in building their collections, so have the number of private collectors increased. “There are some collectors out there who have better archives than the houses themselves,” admits Stanfill. “It means the museums have to get their act together,” says Kerry. “They do have tight budgets, but if it’s of national importance then they need to prioritise. They can no longer wait.”



Kim Jones, men’s artistic director of Louis Vuitton, has access to the extensive Vuitton archive every day for inspiration, but he has also built an impressive private collection, dating from 1971 to 1992, that features more than 300 looks and encompasses everything, from club looks by 1980s performance artist Leigh Bowery to rare punk pieces by Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren. He’d like to eventually turn it into a book or exhibition, but, on a day-to-day level, he finds stimulus in the work of the names behind his pieces. He’s lately appreciating their value, too. “It was only recently, when I had to get it insured, that I realised how much it was all worth,” he says.

路易威登(Louis Vuitton)男装创意总监金姆•琼斯(Kim Jones)每天都可从公司包罗万象的馆藏作品中汲取设计灵感,但他个人的路易威登藏品也异常丰富(时间从1971年直至1992年),其中包括了300多套时装,它们应有尽有,从上世纪80年代行为艺术家利•鲍厄里(Leigh Bowery)的夜店装束到薇薇恩•韦斯特伍德(Vivienne Westwood)与马尔科姆•麦克拉伦(Malcolm McLaren)的珍稀款朋克装。他想最终把它们付梓出版或是举办展览,但他每天都从这些藏品中汲取灵感。他最近还认识到了这些藏品的价值。“最近投保这些藏品时,自己才意识到它们价格不菲。”他说。广州时装翻译公司。


 Value is an interesting word,” says Marshall. For her, as for Jones, it’s the stories and sense of social history that make an archive truly relevant. Taylor agrees. “It’s not a quick way to make money.” And, whether the task falls on an individual or a brand, it requires a lot of patience. “You have to hang on to things for quite a long time.” Taylor pauses. “But they can become very, very valuable.”